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Millfield Plantation River Restoration

Millfield Plantation River Restoration | Essex Rivers Hub
Date: 2014
Project Lead: Essex Wildlife Trust

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Project Partners: Environment Agency
Funding: Catchment Restoration Fund

Millfield Plantation is a private site on the banks of the River Pant, near Great Sampford. It is one of the few sites in this part of Essex which still supports a grazing operation. Thus it was in part ideal for a river restoration project.

The river restoration at Millfield focused around the renovation and rehabilitation of an old historical feature. In this case, an old mill channel. When this mill channel was first excavated is unclear but it has not had water flowing through it for a while, except in major flood events. The mill channel is a large feature on the landscape running for around 400m and then returning to the River Pant. There may have historically been some way of controlling the water to divert it to a further channel.

This feature and the possibility of reconnecting it to the River Pant is what drove this project. The benefits of this would be to create and enhance riparian habitat by enabling it to flood more frequently and store water for longer. This would also help reduce downstream flood risks.

In terms of physically undertaking the works, we had to consider the visual impact of the pipe, the amount of water this would take from the river during times of low flow and the possibility of impact on any fish.

Once this was all considered, to implement the project we undertook a fairly simple intervention, we installed a 300mm pipe half way up the bank. This meant that as the water rose in the river, once it reached a certain level it would spill over into the old mill channel and begin to create new habitat.

Thanks must go to the Environment Agency and the landowner for allowing us to undertake this project at Millfield Plantation.

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The topics below represent the pressures that many waterbodies in the Combined Essex catchment face. They have been divided into six main categories, but it is quite often that these categories can overlap as pressures relate to each other.

Diffuse pollution occurs as water moves across the land or through the ground and picks pollutants. These pollutants can come from a variety of places, including urban and field run off. The pollutants that enter the river can range from sediment to toxins to excess nutrients, meaning that diffuse pollution can cause a whole range of different issues. The variety in these pressure groups means that it is something that can be quite difficult to tackle. It requires groups of people, business and stakeholders to work together in order to solve this problem.

Fish should be able to travel up and down a river freely, allowing them to move and breed in the most suitable habitats for them. It is important that fish populations do not become isolated, as this makes them more susceptible to disease and puts pressure on their survival. Unfortunately, there are often many barriers along rivers that prevent fish from being able to migrate up and down stream. Where barriers have been identified, they will be seen as a ‘pressure’ on a waterbody. Thankfully, there are many solutions now that can be put in place to aid fish passage, even over large barriers.

The flow in a river can vary greatly throughout the year as rainfall and run off can have an effect. This is a natural process. It is when flow is impacted by non-natural processes that it can cause problems. Sometimes, water can be intercepted or removed from a system; this will reduce the flow, therefore changing the habitat conditions. Some species are happy in high energy rivers. This means that when flow is reduced, these species will no longer survive. The opposite of this can occur when excess water is entering a river, for example through increased runoff. Low energy systems then become high energy and displace the species that live there.

A species that is not meant to be found in a particular area is known as an invasive species. Invasive species can be from a different habitat or a different country altogether. Most of the invasive species that we find on our rivers have come from other countries – plants that people have imported for their gardens or animals that have been released for food or by animal rights activists. Control of invasive species requires a lot of time and effort. We are fortunate that we do have a range of methods to manage most of the invasive species that cause havoc on our rivers, but there are still some which we are still struggling to control.

Many of our rivers have been heavily modified over the years as rivers have been used for a wide range of purposes. Physical modification is one of the biggest factors that causes our rivers to be unhealthy. The issues that it can cause range from reducing habitat, preventing migration of mobile species, and even have an effect on the water quality. Where structures and modifications are no longer in use or necessary, they should be removed to allow the river to regain its natural state. Unfortunately, this action is not always taken which means that many of our rivers are over straightened and contain redundant structures. It is possible to return a lot of our rivers to their natural state, through one off projects, but in other cases it is not possible as the river has been changed to protect assets or manage flooding. It is recognised that some modifications cannot be removed without having severe negative impacts both socially and economically.

This is pollution that comes from a single identifiable source. The pollution entering the river could include a whole range of pollutants. Some point source pollution is known about and licences, for example sewage treatment works. Other sources are not licensed, and therefore work needs to be done with landowners to fix the problems that are allowing the pollution to enter the river. Point source pollution is more easily controlled than diffuse pollution as it often only takes one management approach to solve the issue.